Analysis of regulatory mechanisms governing aromatic compound. Stable isotope fractionation caused by glycyl radical. Pdf bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds researchgate. Petroleumcontaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs and heterocyclic aromatics. This normal type of dioxygenation is termed lateral dioxygenation. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Pdf biodegradation of aromatic compounds researchgate. Biodegradation of various aromatic compounds by enriched. Role of dehalogenases in aerobic bacterial degradation of. Dutta 3 and youngho ahn 1,2 1 environmental engineering laboratory, department of civil engineering, yeungnam university, gyeongsan, south korea. Anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds annual. Anaerobic degradation of nonsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and naphthalene are widely distributed among several phyla and classes of bacteria.
Huckels rule is strictly for monocyclic aromatic compound, its application to polycyclic aromatic compounds is tenuous. Microbial degradation of aromatic compounds science. Microbial potential for the anaerobic degradation of. Metabolic reconstruction of aromatic compounds degradation. This paper describes the degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene in soil and soilcompost mixtures. Degradation of aromatic compounds through the bketoadipate pathway is required for pathogenicity of the tomato wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. Sixteen individual pah compounds have been identified as priority. The classical strategy for degradation comprises an attack by oxygenases that hydroxylate and finally cleave the ring with the help of activated molecular oxygen.
The first page of the pdf of this article appears above. Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds gibson. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs are a group of approximately 10,000 compounds that are atmospheric, water and soil pollutants containing one or more aromatic rings 23. Microbial metabolism biodegradation of organic compounds. One important group of bacterial oxygenases consists of the soluble.
Aromatic compounds free download as powerpoint presentation. In order to gain insight into the characteristics of pahs degradation, a proteome analysis of n. Three moving bed biofilm reactors were used to treat synthesized wastewater of aromatic amine compounds including aniline, paradiaminobenzene and paraaminophenol that are found in many industrial wastewaters. Halogenated aromatic compounds are widely used in various applications including agricultural, dye, chemical and pharmaceutical industries arora et al. Tesb, d, e, f, and g show homology to the corresponding enzymes in bacterial aromatic compound degradation, such as bphc, d, h, i, and j, respectively, in biphenyl degradation. Compost addition facilitated the degradation of 500 mg naphthalenekg soil and 100 mgkg each of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pah within 25 days in soil systems with water contents below the waterholding capacity. So far, four types of aromatic metabolism are known. Microbial degradation of various organic pollutants using. Syed khajamohiddin, elisha raju repalle, aleem basha pinjari, mike merrick, dayananda siddavattam. Dna sequencing of the 16s rrna gene was carried out for the 12 bacterial strains and the data showed that the isolates belonged to two different bacterial species. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs.
Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by. It is well known that bacterial degradation plays an important role in pahs removal from the marine environment. Anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons with feiii, mniv or. Crude oil is a complex mixture mainly composed of various saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Thermal rearrangement of aromatic hydrocarbons wikipedia. Xenobiotic chemicals include herbicides, growth regulators, fungicides, and insecticides. Pahs are considered hazardous because of cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects. Biodegradation is one of the cheapest methods without any production of hazardous byproducts. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzoapyrene are described in detail. Functional screening of a metagenomic library for genes. Screening studies were carried out using different microbial consortia enriched with specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pah and nso compounds. Microbes and the mechanism of degradation of organic pollutants. The anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds via the benzoylcoa degradation pathway yields three molecules of acetylcoa, which strict anaerobes without a respiratory chain could use to make three molecules of atp.
You can recognize the aromatic compounds in this text by the presence of one or more benzene rings in their structure. Anaerobic microbial mineralization of recalcitrant organic pollutants is of great environmental significance and involves intriguing novel biochemical reactions. Nitro compounds are named by writing the word nitro before. To date, many hydrolytic, reductive, and oxygenolytic aromatic dehalogenases have been identified. Metabolic diversity in bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds. Only relatively recently has the question of how algae figure in the catabolism of these compounds attracted a. The alephatics the aromatics the asphaltenes phenols, fatty acids, ketones, esters, and porphyrins, and the resins pyridines, quinolines. Lignins are the most abundant aromatic compounds in nature, and their decomposition is essential to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Intensive research on chemotaxis toward aromatic compounds has been conducted with pseudomonas species 71, 73, 74, burkholderia species, and comamonas species. The isomerization of unsubstituted azulene to naphthalene was the first reported thermal transformation of an aromatic hydrocarbon, and has consequently been the most widely studied rearrangement. Present study focused on the biodegradation of various heterocyclic nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen nso compounds using naphthaleneenriched culture.
Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pahs. Microbial oxidation of 2bromostyrene by pseudomonas putida 39d. Microbial degradation of aromatic compounds, which represent about 20% of the earth biomass, has been extensively studied owing to its importance in the biogeochemical carbon cycle. Anaerobic degradation of nonsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as affected. Review article role of dehalogenases in aerobic bacterial. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs are potent environment pollutants which are ubiquitously distributed, having fused aromatic rings 1 vila j, grifoll m. In the years to follow, this compound and homologues were isolated by the distillation of resin gums from balsam trees. Dioxygenation is one of the important initial reactions of the bacterial degradation of various aromatic compounds. Bacterial degradation and bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons article pdf available in polish journal of environmental studies 121. Functional screening of a metagenomic library for genes involved in microbial degradation of aromatic compounds hikaru suenaga institute for biological resources and functions, national institute of advanced industrial science and technology aist, central 6.
The degradation of such chemicals is accomplished mainly by microorganisms 129, 321, and. The knowledge of microbial degradation of aromatic compounds, as well as its significance and importance for understanding the geobiochemical cycles and for applica. Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by escherichia coli. Microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in soil. Test your knowledge of aromatic compounds in this interactive quiz and printable. Interest in the biodegradation mechanisms and environmental fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs is prompted by their ubiquitous distribution and their potentially deleterious effects on human health. Nitro compounds are an important class of organic compounds which may be regarded as derived from hydrocarbons by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by nitro no. Here, we describe three alternative strategies used by microorganisms to degrade aromatic compounds. Pahs constitute a large and diverse class of organic compounds and are generally.
Characteristics of aerobic microorganisms capable of degrading organic pollutants 146 2 principles of bacterial degradation 147 2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs are ubiquitous persistent environmental contaminants generated by natural combustion processes and human activities. Only relatively recently has the question of how algae figure in the catabolism of these compounds attracted a degree of interest. The growth and phenol biodegradation study was carried. In particular, hydrocarbons and halogenated compounds have long been doubted to be degradable in the absence of oxygen. Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds via angular.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons aromatic compounds can have rings that share a set of carbon atoms fused rings compounds from fused benzene or aromatic heterocyclic rings are themselves aromatic naphthalene. Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by microalgae kirk t. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene. Confirmation of the degradation of the aromatic compounds by the chosen bacterial strains was done using hplc and lcmsms analyses. Most commonly used herbicides and pesticides are aromatic halogenated predominantly chlorinated compounds.
Degradation of aromatic compounds through the pathway is. Target compounds in the study were pyridine, quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran. The ability of microbial populations to mediate the anaerobic transformation of six aromatic compounds in sedi ments from the milwaukee harbor, green bay, and lake erie was examined sediment slurries were incubated in an anaerobic mineral salts medium that was amended with multiple electron acceptors, including manganeseiv and feiii oxides, and the concentrations of the aromatic substrates. The odors we smell everyday are made up of aromatic compounds. Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds wiley online library. Chapter 1 diversity of microbial toluene degradation pathways. Anaerobic degradation of oil hydrocarbons by sulfatereducing. However, the following mechanisms are generalized to all thermal isomerizations of aromatic hydrocarbons. Because many of the resin gums had fragrant aromas, these compounds were often called aromatic compounds or aromatic hydrocarbons.
The pah biodegradation ability of the enriched mixed. Some representative aromatic compounds and their uses are listed in table. Reductive degradation of organic compounds using microbial. However, many compounds we find in nature are cyclic compounds with an element other than carbon in the ring. The objective of this project work is to study the degradation of phenol by bacterial strain isolated from paper sludge. Aromatic compound, any of a large class of unsaturated chemical compounds characterized by one or more planar rings of atoms joined by covalent bonds of two different kinds. From the results obtained a general sequence has been proposed for the microbial oxidation of dihydroxy aromatic compounds. Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds directory of. Microbes and the mechanism of degradation of organic pollutantsdeuterium labeling of phenols to unravel the enzyme specificity in the betaketoadipate pathway the microbial degradation of aromatic compounds has tremendous practical significance. Novosphingobium pentaromativorans us61, a marine bacterium isolated from muddy sediments of ulsan bay, republic of korea, was previously shown to be capable of degrading multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo apyrene are described in detail. Whereas degradation of hydrocarbons by oxygenrespiring microorganisms has been known for nearly one century, utilization of hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions has been investigated only during the past ten years. Microbial degradation of lignin and lignin related. Nitrogen compounds terpenoids phenolics polyacetylenes aromatic hydrocarbons xenobiotics xenobiotic chemicals are biologically active molecules that are foreign to an organism.
Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of. The microbial degradation of aromatic pollutants has been well characterized over a period of more than 30 years. The unique stability of these compounds is referred to as aromaticity. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbonsorganic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogenthat are composed of multiple aromatic rings organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized. Nov 01, 2014 biodegradation of synthetic products synthetic compoundsxenobiotics nitro aromatic compounds nacs, polycyclic aromatics and other hydrocarbons pahs that are constituents of crude oil, and halogenated organic compounds together constitute a large and diverse group of chemicals that are responsible for causing widespread environmental. Cain 1, stefan schmidt 2 department of environmental science, institute of environmental and natural sciences, lancaster university, lancaster la1 4yq, uk received 16 may 1998. The use of the term xenobiotic with respect to biodegradation should be. Review article role of dehalogenases in aerobic bacterial degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds pankajkumararoraandhanhongbae school of biotechnology, yeungnam university, gyeongsan, gyeongbuk, republic of korea. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. Aromatic compounds, such as biphenyl, toluene, and naphthalene, are dioxygenated at lateral positions of the aromatic ring resulting in the formation of cisdihydrodiol. Jan, 2009 aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Although the detailed mechanism of the initial activation reactions remains to be clarified the biochemical steps involved slowly approach elucidation.
Schematic presentation of the microbial aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. Polycyclic aromatic hc includes naphthalenec,ohs, acenaphthalene ci2hg. Microbiology in the faculty of natural and agricultural science department of microbiology and plant pathology university of pretoria pretoria. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms have been isolated that degrade aromatic compounds, but. Microbial degradation of xenobiotics like aromatic. They are widely distributed in different bacterial taxa as hydroxylases in ortho or paraposition of aromatic compounds that already contain a hydroxyl group van. The microbes of most interest have been bacteria and fungi. Michielse1,, linda reijnen1, chantal olivain2, claude alabouvette2 and martijn rep1 1plant pathology, swammerdam institute for life sciences, university of amsterdam, science park 904, 1098 xh.
Degradation of all four compounds is initiated by a fumarate addition reaction by a glycyl radical enzyme, analogous to the wellstudied benzylsuccinate synthase reaction in toluene degradation. Although the term aromatic originally concerned odour. Widespread usage and accumulation of these compounds in the environment is a source of great concern, as they can cause harmful and toxic effects on human and animal health. Biodegradation of complex aromatic compounds in nuclear process water by phumza vuyokazi tikilili a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of master of science. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons attach to the relevant bacterial enzymes at. Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds georg fuchs microbiology, faculty of biology, university of freiburg, freiburg, germany aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of natural and synthetic compounds that can serve as substrates for bacterial growth. Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by microalgae fems. The biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria. Pdf metabolic diversity in bacterial degradation of. The microorganism utilizes them and their subsequent metabolites as a sole source of carbonnitrogen, thus removing them completely.
The findings on aromatic compounds biodegradation in c. Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds, biotechnology. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Microbial degradation of petroleum biodegradation of hcs is a complex process depending on. In the presence of the pathway substrate, repression is released by interaction of the regulator with the aromatic compounds or one of its metabolites 62, 149, 165, 249.
Gntr family members that control the degradation of aromatic compounds except orf0 are transcriptional repressors in the absence of the pathway substrates. The reactors with cylindrical shape had an internal diameter and an effective depth of 10 and 60 cm, respectively. Fitts,c and dev chidambaramb,z atallahassee community college, tallahassee, florida 32304, usa. However, the process would consume more atp in the formation of benzoylcoa two atp equivalents. A new bacterial steroid degradation gene cluster in. Heterocyclic aromatic compounds so far we have only considered carbon skeleton compounds.
An interesting nonbenzenoid aromatic compound is azulene, which has large resonance energy and a large dipole moment. Since many aromatic compounds are major environmental pollutants, their detection and removal from contaminated sites are of great biotechnological interest. Chemotaxislinked degradation of aromatic compounds. White rot fungi secreting phenol oxidases are assumed to be involved in the initial degradation of native lignin, whereas bacteria play a main role in the mineralization of ligninderived lowmolecularweight compounds in soil. The microbiological degradation of aromatic compounds. Toxicity and microbial degradation of nitrobenzene. Reductive degradation of organic compounds using microbial nanotechnology ashley johnson, a,d giorvanni merilis, e jason hastings,b. However, the homologies between tesb and bphc and between tesd and bphd are about 40% at most. Although escherichia coli has long been recognized as the bestunderstood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. In the upstream gene region of tesd, orf11 and orf12 were identified. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by. Microbial breakdown of halogenated aromatic pesticides and related compounds. Microbial degradation of aromatic compounds microbial degradation is defined as the breakdown of a compound such as aromaticsxenobiotics into simple metabolic intermediates with the use of microbes.554 1401 608 1349 916 93 66 68 238 237 129 1473 1043 956 844 596 1223 40 661 145 490 316 481 1335 1447 1157 605 834 1408 242 825 94 1305 277 888 14 140 227 723 242 606 774 1186 290 1009